The People of Chad

Nationality: Noun and adjective--Chadian(s)

Population (2009 census): 11.2 million.  Annual population growth rate (2010 est.): 2.6%.

Density (2010 est.): 8.9 people per sq. km.

Ethnic groups: 200 distinct groups. In the north and center, Gorane (sub-groups are Toubou, Daza, Kreda), Zaghawa, Kanembou, Ouaddai, Arabs, Baguirmi, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Hausa, Boulala, and Maba, most of whom are Muslim. In the south, Sara (including major subgroups--Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye), Moudang, Moussei, and Massa, most of whom are Christian or animist.

Religions: Muslim 55%, Christian 35%, animist 10%.

Languages: French and Arabic (official); Sara (in the south), more than 120 indigenous Chadian languages and dialects.

Education: Years compulsory--6. Enrollment--primary school 89.7% (2009 gross enrollment ratio--GER); secondary school 24.1% (2009 GER); higher education 2% (2009 GER). Literacy (age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic, 2009 est.)--33.6%.

Health: Life expectancy (2009 est.)--49.6 years. Infant mortality rate (2010 est.)--99 deaths/1,000 live births.

Work force (2009 est.): 4.283 million. Agriculture--more than 80%; largely subsistence agriculture and stock raising.

Communication access (2009 estimate, World Bank): 0.1% have regular access to landline phones, 24% have regular access to cell phones, and 1.7% have access to the Internet.

Reference: US State Department - updated January 6, 2012