The World Health Organization estimates the life expectancy in Chad at 47 and 48 years for men and women respectively. Chad, in 1987, had an estimated 4 hospitals, 44 smaller health centers, 1 UNICEF clinic, and 239 other clinics —half of which were under various religious organizations control. Due to civil war and tribal fighting many of the regional hospitals were either damaged or destroyed. Public health care expenditures have been estimated at only 2.9% of GDP.
The most common diseases found in Chad are schistosomiasis, leprosy, malaria, spinal meningitis, tuberculosis, and yaws, as well as malnutrition. Immunization rates up to 1999 in Chad were very low for children birth to one year of age: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, affected nearly 21% of these children, while measles, affected close to 30%. Statistics indicate that the majority of the population do not have access to safe drinking water and as well as adequate sanitation.
Chad had a birth rate of 43 per 1,000 people in 1999. The infant mortality rate in 2005 was estimated at 93.13 per 1,000 live births. Maternal mortality has increased to one of the highest rates in Africa. Over 300 women died in childbirth or pregnancy per 100,000 live births. As of 2000, only 4% of married women (ages 15 to 49) used any form of contraception. In Chad, 60% of the women underwent female genital mutilation.
The major infectious diseases are primarily food or waterborne diseases such as bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever. Malaria and HIV and Aids affect a large number of people in Chad as well as all of Central Africa.
Reference: World Health Organization